How does the recurrent laryngeal nerve provide evidence of evolution?

How does the recurrent laryngeal nerve provide evidence of evolution?

Evidence of evolution Over the course of evolution, as the neck extended and the heart became lower in the body, the laryngeal nerve was caught on the wrong side of the heart. Natural selection gradually lengthened the nerve by tiny increments to accommodate, resulting in the circuitous route now observed.

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) branches off the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and has an indirect course through the neck. It supplies innervation to all of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscles, as well as sensation to the larynx below the level of the vocal cords.

Which structures does the vagus nerve supply?

The vagus nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the majority of the abdominal organs. It sends branches to the oesophagus, stomach and most of the intestinal tract – up to the splenic flexure of the large colon.

What is peculiar about the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) branches off the vagus nerve and supplies function to some muscles of the larynx (voice box). You have two, one on each side, as you do with other nerves. However, the two RLNs are different from other nerves in that their courses are not symmetrical.

Why is recurrent laryngeal nerve called so?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), also known as the inferior laryngeal nerve, is a branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) which has a characteristic loop around the right subclavian artery on the right and the aortic arch on the left before returning up to achieve the tracheoesophageal groove and then the larynx.

What evidence supports the theory of evolution?

Fossil evidence supports evolution. The geographic information about many fossils provides evidence that two species with a common ancestor can develop differently in different locations. An is an early form of an organism from which later forms descend.

What happens if recurrent laryngeal nerve is damaged?

Damage to the laryngeal nerve can result in loss of voice or obstruction to breathing. Laryngeal nerve damage can be caused by injury, tumors, surgery, or infection. Damage to the nerves of the larynx can cause hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, or the loss of voice.

Why is the vagus nerve unique?

The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and thorax to the abdomen, has the widest distribution in the body. It contains somatic and visceral afferent fibers, as well as general and special visceral efferent fibers.

What happens when the vagus nerve is stimulated?

In vagus nerve stimulation, an implanted pulse generator and lead wire stimulate the vagus nerve, which leads to stabilization of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. About one-third of people with epilepsy don’t fully respond to anti-seizure drugs.

Which recurrent laryngeal nerve is more prone to injury?

right RLN
Low in the neck, the course of the right RLN is relatively oblique and lateral and, probably, more prone to injury than the left RLN. The nerve may branch several times before entering the larynx.

Which nerve is responsible for hearing and balance?

vestibulocochlear nerve
The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as cranial nerve eight (CN VIII), consists of the vestibular and cochlear nerves.

What are the 3 important laryngeal muscles?

The muscles in this group include the stylohyoid muscle, the digastric muscle and the mylohyoid muscle. The stylopharyngeus muscle is not attached directly to the hyoid bone, however it acts indirectly to elevate both the hyoid bone and the larynx.

How is biogeography evidence for evolution?

Biogeography, the study of the geographical distribution of organisms, provides information about how and when species may have evolved. Fossils provide evidence of long-term evolutionary changes, documenting the past existence of species that are now extinct.

What are the 3 main lines of evidence for evolution?

Darwin used multiple lines of evidence to support his theory of evolution by natural selection — fossil evidence, biogeographical evidence, and anatomical evidence.

What happens when after thyroidectomy there is damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

Objectives. Vocal cord paresis or paralysis due to iatrogenic injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLNI) is one of the main problems in thyroid surgery. Although many procedures have been introduced to prevent the nerve injury, still the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy varies between 1.5-14%.

Which recurrent laryngeal nerve is more commonly injured?

Anatomy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Classic descriptions of the RLNs hold that they ascend in the tracheoesophageal groove; however, they may in fact be lateral to it. Low in the neck, the course of the right RLN is relatively oblique and lateral and, probably, more prone to injury than the left RLN.

Is vagus nerve sympathetic or parasympathetic?

The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system.

Is the vagus nerve sensory or motor?

The vagus nerve (cranial nerve [CN] X) is the longest cranial nerve in the body, containing both motor and sensory functions in both the afferent and efferent regards.

What does vagus nerve control?

The vagus nerve, also known as the vagal nerves, are the main nerves of your parasympathetic nervous system. This system controls specific body functions such as your digestion, heart rate and immune system. These functions are involuntary, meaning you can’t consciously control them.

What triggers vagus nerve?

Vasovagal syncope occurs when the part of your nervous system that regulates heart rate and blood pressure malfunctions in response to a trigger, such as the sight of blood. Your heart rate slows, and the blood vessels in your legs widen (dilate).