What is the function of interleukin 4?
Abstract. IL-4 has been called the “prototypic immunoregulatory cytokine.” Like many cytokines, it can affect a variety of target cells in multiple ways. IL-4 has an important role in regulating antibody production, hematopoiesis and inflammation, and the development of effector T-cell responses.
What cells express the IL-4 receptor?
Thus, based on their tissue distribution, the type I IL-4 receptor is found in lymphocytes and myeloid cells, and the type II IL-4 receptor is expressed in myeloid cells and all non-hematopoietic cells.
What does IL-4 do to B cells?
IL-4 is a cytokine with pleiotropic activity in the immune system (22), and it plays an essential role in the activation of mature B cells as a cofactor for LPS, CD40L, and Ag stimulation to induce B cell differentiation, proliferation, and Ab secretion, mainly of IgG1 and IgE isotypes (22, 23).
Does IL-4 activate eosinophils?
First, this cytokine is involved in the expansion of Th2-type cells and in their ability to secrete IL-5 (32, 33, 60). Second, as already mentioned, IL-4 triggers the expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. This adhesion molecule is also critical for the influx of eosinophils within inflamed tissues (34–37).
Is IL-4 proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory?
IL-4 can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on astrocytes, depending on the treatment and timing paradigm. In primary mouse astrocytes, pretreatment with IL-4 decreases subsequent production of NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, as well as secretion of TNF upon LPS stimulation (38).
Do B cells secrete IL-4?
B cells produce IL-4 but not Ab after activation with Ag and Th2 cells.
What cells produce interleukins?
The majority of interleukins are synthesized by CD4 helper T-lymphocyte, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells.
What does il13 do in asthma?
IL-13 induces many biological responses relevant to asthma, such as B-cell immunoglobulin E production, generation of eosinophil chemoattractants, maturation of mucus-secreting goblet cells, production of extracellular matrix proteins and myofibroblast differentiation, and enhanced contractility of airway smooth muscle …
What is the role of IL-13 in asthma?
IL-13 and Eosinophils in Asthma A major function of IL-13 (and IL-4) in the asthmatic airway is to induce chemotaxis of eosinophils to the site of injury. A number of in vitro studies have investigated the role of IL-13-induced chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils.
What does IL-4 do in allergy?
In addition to driving the differentiation of TH0 lymphocytes into the TH2 phenotype, IL-4 is important in allergic immune responses owing to its ability to prevent apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Activation of these cells results in rapid proliferation and secretion of cytokines.
Why is IL-4 antiinflammatory?
When binding to the surface of target cells, IL-4 may differentially engage two different types of receptors. By acting on macrophages, a cell type critically involved in inflammation, IL-4 induces the so-called alternative macrophage activation.
How do interleukins activate B cells?
The earliest B-cell progenitors are bound to the stromal cell surface by adhesive interactions through cell surface molecules to promote the binding of c-kit to stem cell factor (SCF). At the late pro-B cell stage, interleukin-7 (IL-7) induces proliferation and differentiation of pro-B cells to pre-B cells.
What cytokines do B cells secrete?
Regulatory B cells (Breg) are distinguished by their ability to secrete IL-10 or TGFβ-1, while effector B cell populations produce cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, TNFα, IL-6 (Be-2 cells) or IFNγ, IL-12 and TNFα (Be-1 cells).
Is IL-4 a cytokine?
IL-4 is a cytokine that functions as a potent regulator of immunity secreted primarily by mast cells, Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils.
What produces IL-13?
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a profibrotic cytokine responsible for Th2 responses in humans. Released by T cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, IL-13 is typically associated with allergic inflammation, including asthma.
What is the role of IL 10?
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties that plays a central role in limiting host immune response to pathogens, thereby preventing damage to the host and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis.
Is Interleukin 4 anti inflammatory?
Interleukin-4 and IL-10 are pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokines that function mainly by suppressing the pro-inflammatory milieu. Several different immune cells that produce IL-4 are activated T cells, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and NKT cells (21, 22).
What is the role of anti IL 4r During the challenge stage of an allergic response?
Anti-IL-4 therapy Later, as the Th1 vs Th2 paradigm developed, IL-4 was recognized as a key cytokine necessary to induce the differentiation of Th2 lymphocytes from naive T cells and helping sustain the allergic response over time.