What is the function of 2 4 dinitrophenol?
2,4-Dinitrophenol elevates the BMR, lowers the serum T4 concentration, accelerates the peripheral metabolism of T4, and depresses thyroidal RAIU and secretion. Its actions are probably complex. Like T4, the drug stimulates metabolism by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.
What is the use of PubChem?
PubChem supports drug discovery in many aspects such as lead identification and optimization, compound–target profiling, polypharmacology studies and unknown chemical identity elucidation. PubChem has also become a valuable resource for developing secondary databases, informatics tools and web services.
What is the effect of 2/4 dinitrophenol on mitochondria?
Mitochondrial uncouplers, such as 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP), increase the cellular respiration by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi). We show that this respiratory effect can be transient or even prevented in isolated liver cells depending on the exogenous substrate used (dihydroxyacetone vs.
What is PubChem?
PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
How does DNP work in the body?
Mechanism of action. DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat.
Why does DNP increase oxygen consumption?
Abstract. IT has long been recognized that 2,4-dinitrophenol increases oxidative metabolism. The increase of oxygen consumption after the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is explained as being a result of dissociation between oxidative and phosphorylative processes.
Why is PubChem good?
PubChem is the largest open-source chemistry database and hence is an important database when it comes in terms of drug discovery since it contains active chemical substances from a variety of sources which increases the probability of successful lead identification.
Where is PubChem?
The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine, which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface.
How does DNP affect the electron transport chain?
(Figure) After DNP poisoning, the electron transport chain can no longer form a proton gradient, and ATP synthase can no longer make ATP. DNP is an effective diet drug because it uncouples ATP synthesis; in other words, after taking it, a person obtains less energy out of the food he or she eats.
How does 2/4 dinitrophenol inhibit ATP production?
DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat.
How do I find PubChem?
Go to the PubChem homepage (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and select the “Compound” tab above the search box. Perform three searches using the queries listed on the table below, and record the number of returned compounds and the CIDs of hits.
How does DNP make you feel?
“When it is taken at the high level doses which makes it effective for weight loss, health risks include short-term lethargy, nausea, vomiting and an increased pulse rate,” Petroczi said. “Severe long-term effects can include cataracts, damage to the liver, and death.”
How much does DNP increase your metabolism?
However, there seems to be significant variation in individual responses with an average metabolic rate increase of 11% for every 100 mg of DNP when taken regularly [10–12].
How does DNP affect the mitochondria?
DNP induces mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibits mitochondrial ATP production and prevents normal developmental increases in mitochondrial output.
Why does DNP increase body temp?
Overdosage of DNP leads to death that is due to the extremely high increase in body temperature, which is because in living cells, DNP loses energy in the proton gradient in the form of heat instead of producing ATP (bbscience.kelcommerce.com).
Who owns PubChem?
PubChem (Kim, 2016; Kim et al., 2016a; Wang et al., 2017) is a public chemical information resource, developed and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), an institute within the U.S. National institutes of Health (NIH).
Is PubChem legit?
How does DNP inhibit ATP synthesis?
DNP transports protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane, altering the proton gradient and inhibiting ATP production via OXPHOS (Lou et al., 2007).
How does 2/4 dinitrophenol affect ATP synthesis?
How does DNP inhibit electron transport chain?
Dinitrophenol (DNP) is an uncoupler, or has the ability to separate the flow of electrons and the pumping of H+ ions for ATP synthesis. This means that the energy from electron transfer cannot be used for ATP synthesis.