What is normal range of MMP-9?
After releasing the MMP-9 test, and for years after, the Quest/LabCorp/Esoterix reference range for MMP-9 was 85-332 ng/mL. This would suggest a mean of 208.5 with SD of 61.75 ng/mL. After LabCorp/Esoterix changed the MMP-9 reference range, without a change in testing methodology, to 0-983 ng/mL, Dr.
What causes high matrix metalloproteinases?
MMP-9 has been associated with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, idiopathic uveitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus [16–19].
What does high MMP mean?
Notably, high levels of MMP-9 have been associated with plaque progression, destability and rupture. These various effects exaggerate the inflammatory process, promoting atherosclerosis and increasing the risk of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular (CV) events.
What is MMP activity?
Abstract. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also called matrixins, function in the extracellular environment of cells and degrade both matrix and non-matrix proteins.
What is matrix metalloproteinase 8?
Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8; called also neutrophil collagenase or collagenase 2) is a member of matrix metalloproteinase family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endo-peptidases responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix.
What does high MMP-9 mean?
What activates matrix metalloproteinases?
Once secreted, pro-MMPs can be activated by cleavage of the pro-peptide. More than one-third of all discovered human MMPs can be activated by pro-protein convertases or furins. These MMPs contain a furin consensus sequence between their pro- and catalytic domain (fig.
What is in matrix metalloproteinase?
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain.
How do I find my MMP activity?
Detection of MMPs A widely used technique is substrate zymography, which identifies MMPs by the degradation of their preferential substrate and by their molecular weight. Using this technique, one can determine whether the MMP is in an active or latent form.
What does MMP 9 do?
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling.
What produces MMP8?
In humans, the MMP-8 protein is encoded by the MMP8 gene. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22. 3. Most MMP’s are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases.
What is in situ Zymography?
In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins.