What is meant by coarctation?
What is meant by coarctation?
Coarctation (pronounced koh-ark-TEY-shun) of the aorta is a birth defect in which a part of the aorta, the tube that carries oxygen-rich blood to the body, is narrower than usual.
What causes aortic coarctation?
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing, or constriction, in a portion of the aorta. The condition forces the heart to pump harder to get blood through the aorta and on to the rest of the body. The aorta is the largest artery in your body. It moves oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body.
What are the types of coarctation of aorta?
There are three types of aortic coarctations:
- Preductal coarctation: The narrowing is proximal to the ductus arteriosus.
- Ductal coarctation: The narrowing occurs at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus.
- Postductal coarctation: The narrowing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus.
What is coarctation of aorta murmur?
The murmur associated with coarctation of the aorta may be nonspecific yet is usually a systolic murmur in the left infraclavicular area and under the left scapula. Additional murmurs that result from the presence of associated abnormalities, such as VSD or aortic valve stenosis, may also be detected.
What is coarctation repair?
Coarctation of the aorta can be repaired with surgery or other procedures. One of the most common ways to fix a coarctation is to remove the narrow section and reconnect the two ends of the aorta. In some cases, doctors may do a balloon dilation (also called balloon angioplasty).
How do you test for coarctation?
Tests to confirm a diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta may include:
- Echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart in motion.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).
- Chest X-ray.
- Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Computerized tomography (CT) scan.
- CT angiogram.
- Cardiac catheterization.
How is coarctation of the aorta detected?
An echocardiogram is often used to diagnose coarctation of the aorta and guide treatment. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test measures the electrical activity of the heart. During an ECG , sensors (electrodes) are attached to the chest and sometimes to the arms or legs.
Which syndrome is associated with coarctation of aorta?
Coarctation of the aorta is the most common cardiac defect associated with Turner syndrome.
How is aortic coarctation diagnosed?
Coarctation of the aorta is usually diagnosed by echocardiogram (ultrasound pictures of the heart). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging), cardiac CT (computerized tomography scan), and cardiac catheterization angiography also show aortic narrowing.
What are the clinical features of coarctation of the aorta?
What are the signs and symptoms of coarctation of the aorta?
- Labored or rapid breathing.
- Weak femoral artery pulse (taken in the groin area)
- Heavy sweating.
- Poor growth.
- Pale or gray appearance.
- Heart murmur: extra heart sound heard when the doctor listens with a stethoscope.
How is coarctation of aorta repair?
How do you fix coarctation?
There are a few surgical techniques to repair coarctation. The most common repair involves resection (removal) of the narrowed area with anastomosis (reconnection) of the two ends to each other. Sometimes the resection (removal) must be extended towards the arch if there is a longer piece of narrowing.
Where is coarctation of the aorta located?
Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that delivers oxygen-rich (red) blood to the body. A coarctation is located just past the aortic arch, which has branches providing blood to the head and arms.
How long can you live with coarctation of the aorta?
Individuals with coarctation of the aorta have historically had poor long-term out- comes with a mean life expectancy of 35 years. Natural history studies demon- strated 90% of individuals dying before age 50 years.
How is coarctation of the aorta clinically diagnosed?
How do you assess for coarctation of the aorta?