What is an orthotopic xenograft?
Orthotopic models involve implantation of tumor cell lines or patient-derived cell xenografts into animal tumor models into the organ or tissue which matches the tumor histotype. This creates a more disease-relevant environment for the assessment of tumor growth, which can be analyzed by optical imaging.
What is cell Line Derived Xenograft?
What is a cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) model? A cell line-derived xenograft or CDX model is a gold-standard model used for the research and testing of anti-cancer therapies. Human tumor samples are cultured as cell lines and implanted into mouse models to test the efficacy of anti-tumor compounds in vivo.
What is mouse xenograft model?
In this model, human tumor cells are transplanted, either under the skin or into the organ type in which the tumor originated, into immunocompromised mice that do not reject human cells.
What is the survival rate for bladder Cancer?
The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.
What is subcutaneous xenograft?
Subcutaneous Xenograft Models Of Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer. Subcutaneously implanted patient-derived xenografts (PDX) have become a commonly used tool in the study of cancer; however, these PDX models rarely metastasize from the subcutaneous site – even if the original patient tumors are known to be metastatic.
What does orthotopic mean?
in the normal or usual place
Listen to pronunciation. (OR-thoh-TAH-pik) In medicine, refers to something that occurs in the normal or usual place in the body. It is often used to describe tissue or an organ that is transplanted into its normal place in the body.
What are PDX and CDX lines?
Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX): Immunodeficient animals are engrafted with human-derived tumor tissue. Cell Line Xenograft (CDX): Immunodeficient animals are engrafted with human tumor cell lines.
What xenograft means?
(ZEE-noh-graft) The transplant of an organ, tissue, or cells to an individual of another species.
Why is a xenograft used?
In the event that a person is very badly burned or injured and is lacking large areas of skin, xenografts are used to temporarily repair the affected areas. The most commonly used xenograft is the EZ Derm®, which is an aldehyde cross-linked porcine dermis that aids in the recovery of partial-thickness skin loss.
What is the number one cause of bladder cancer?
Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.
Why are xenografts used?
What is orthotopic kidney transplant?
OKT is an alternative procedure where heterotopic kidney transplant is not feasible due to the medical conditions of the patient or the demands of sport. The retroperitoneal approach with flank incision is a preferred technique. The splenic artery is often used for renal artery end-to-end anastomosis.
What is orthotopic heart transplantation?
Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a well established and commonly utilized procedure for end-stage heart failure patients. Heterotopic heart transplantation (HHT) is a surgical procedure that allows the graft to be connected to the native heart in a parallel fashion.
What is PDX cell line?
Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) are models of cancer where the tissue or cells from a patient’s tumor are implanted into an immunedeficient or humanized mouse. PDX models simulate human tumor biology allowing for natural cancer progression, and offer the most translational research model for evaluating efficacy.
What is xenograft made from?
In the dental field, xenografts are usually porcine or bovine, meaning they come from pigs or cows. The grafts are cleaned, sterilized, and prepared for implantation into the human body. The most common grafts to be used in the dental industry are bone grafts.
How does a xenograft work?
Xenotransplantation is any procedure that involves the transplantation, implantation or infusion into a human recipient of either (a) live cells, tissues, or organs from a nonhuman animal source, or (b) human body fluids, cells, tissues or organs that have had ex vivo contact with live nonhuman animal cells, tissues or …
What are the signs that bladder cancer has spread?
The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body include:
- tiredness or weakness.
- pain when urinating.
- difficulty urinating or inability to urinate.
- pain in the lower back on one side of the body.
- weight loss.
- swollen feet.
- bone pain.
Where does bladder cancer spread first?
When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.