What factors influence the method of construction in tunnels?

What factors influence the method of construction in tunnels?

The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.

What type of Engineers build tunnels?

Underground construction and tunnel engineering is truly an interdisciplinary practice, involving knowledge and skills primarily in civil engineering, geological engineering and mining engineering and, to a lesser extent, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, geophysics, geology and others.

What are the three most common methods used for tunnel construction?

Most Popular 8 Tunnel Construction Methods

  • Cut & Cover- Bottom-Top & Top-Bottom.
  • Boring Machines- Earth Pressure Balanced, Bentonite Shield & Rock TBM.
  • New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)
  • Drilling & Blasting- Full Face, Heading & Benching, and Drag Tunnelling.
  • Clay Kicking.
  • Shaft.
  • Pipe Jacking Method.
  • Box Jacking Method.

What are the most critical problems for underground buildings and tunnels?

These hazards include reduced natural venti- lation and light, difficult and limited access and egress, exposure to air contaminants, fire, flooding, and explosion.

What are the challenges to be faced during tunneling operation?

The problems encountered during tunneling in shear zone are in the form of face instability/collapse, excessive over break, cavity/chimney formation, running ground condition, mud inrush, squeezing and/or swelling of rock mass etc.

Which type of method is used for setting out of tunnels?

Shield Tunnelling The method involves mechanized excavation of soils in front of a steel cylinder, called “shield” and assembling of the tunnel construction under the protection of this cylinder in its back part. The machine is pushed forward by a system of hydraulic jacks.

What is tunnel engineer?

Tunnel engineers are highly specialized civil engineers responsible for the design and management of tunnel engineering projects. They are involved in every part of the tunnel building process from the initial planning stage through to the day the first car or train passes through.

What is mean by tunnel engineering?

Tunnel engineering is a branch of civil engineering that deals with construction of tunnels.

What are the construction methods used in civil engineering of tunnels?


  • 2.1 Drill and blast.
  • 2.2 Roadheaders.
  • 2.3 Open-cut method.
  • 2.4 Cut and cover.
  • 2.5 Immersed-tube method.
  • 2.6 Pipe-jacking.
  • 2.7 Box-jacking.
  • 2.8 Auger-boring.

Which type of way is constructed during tunneling?

Pipe Jacking Method of Tunnel Construction Pipe jacking method is used to construct tunnels under existing structures like road ways, railways etc. In this method, specially made pipes are driven into underground using hydraulic jacks. Maximum size of 3.2-meter diameter is allowed for tunnels.

What is the main risk of tunnel boring machine?

Fault fractured zones, soft fractured rock masses, water-bearing structures, water inrush, collapse, boulder falling, surrounding rock deformation, rockburst, and so forth are the main geological problems that affect the safety and efficiency of a TBM construction.

What are the steps of tunnel surveying?

The basic procedure of tunnel surveying is to align the center line in the ground and transfer that to the tunnel. This also involves leveling the surface on the ground and the internal of the tunnel.

How is a tunnel constructed?

There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use. Cut-and-cover tunnels are constructed in a shallow trench and then covered over. Bored tunnels are constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. Finally, a tube can be sunk into a body of water, which is called an immersed tunnel.

What is tunnel design?

Tunnel design is an interdisciplinary subject, involving geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, and hydrogeology. In this chapter, the main concepts of tunnel design will be presented.

What are the factors to be considered during selection of a method of tunneling?

As per my knowledge the factors effecting the choice of method of tunnel are:

  • Faulting. Fault displacement.
  • Uniformity of geologic material.
  • Potential for adverse tunneling conditions.
  • Flowing/squeezing soils, boulders.
  • Properties of geologic materials.
  • Groundwater conditions.
  • Hazardous materials.

What are the importance factors of civil engineering in shaping and impacting the world?

Answer: Shaping the World uses the knowledge and experience of civil engineers to help find solutions to some of the world’s most pressing problems. These global challenges range from population pressures and growing urbanization, climate change effects, energy, and water shortages, to natural and human disasters.

Which tunneling techniques is used for long tunnel construction?

Methods of Tunnel Construction

  • Cut and cover method.
  • Bored tunnel method.
  • Clay kicking method.
  • Shaft method.
  • Pipe jacking method.
  • Box jacking method.
  • Underwater tunnels.

How do you tunnel safely?

You must establish either a vertical shaft or a horizontal shaft into the side of a hill. Dig it so that you have approximately twice as much earth above the tunnel as the height of the tunnel itself. Example: a 3-foot high tunnel will need 6 feet of earth above it. This will help avoid collapse.

Which shape of tunnel is easiest?

Elliptical Shaped Tunnels For carrying water, elliptical-shaped tunnels are appropriate. These are suitable in softer material. For better resistance to external pressure, the major axis of these tunnels is maintained vertically.