What does cellular heterogeneity mean?
What does cellular heterogeneity mean?
Heterogeneity is essentially a statistical properly of cellular populations. A range of cellular behaviors can be estimated from observations of a small number of cells over long times, or a large number of cells at a small number of times.
What are the effector T cells?
CD4 effector T cells, also called helper T (Th) cells, are the functional cells for executing immune functions. Balanced immune responses can only be achieved by proper regulation of the differentiation and function of Th cells.
What are homogeneous cells?
Homogeneous technique facilitates the cultivation of large quantities of cells, reduces the risk of contamination by eliminating many manipulations, and makes practical the control of conditions such as pH and oxygen tension.
Why is cell heterogeneity important?
Interestingly, non-genetic, cellular heterogeneity also plays an important role in development. Early in the developmental process, before the small population of cells is beginning to differentiate, these cells are theoretically identical.
What do you mean by heterogeneity?
Definition of heterogeneity : the quality or state of consisting of dissimilar or diverse elements : the quality or state of being heterogeneous cultural heterogeneity.
What causes differentiation of T cells?
T cell differentiation is mainly driven by polarizing cytokines that activate JAK/STAT signaling routes, resulting in lineage‐specific transcription factor expression and effector cytokine secretion.
What are the two types of effector T cells?
The effector molecules produced by armed effector T cells fall into two broad classes: cytotoxins, which are stored in specialized lytic granules and released by cytotoxic CD8 T cells, and cytokines and related membrane-associated proteins, which are synthesized de novo by all effector T cells.
What is the difference between homogeneity and heterogeneity?
Heterogeneity in statistics means that your populations, samples or results are different. It is the opposite of homogeneity, which means that the population/data/results are the same. A heterogeneous population or sample is one where every member has a different value for the characteristic you’re interested in.
What is tumor cell heterogeneity?
A term that describes the differences between tumors of the same type in different patients, the differences between cancer cells within a single tumor, or the differences between a primary (original) tumor and a secondary tumor. These differences may involve the tumor’s genes and proteins.
What is an example of heterogeneity?
For example, oil and vinegar, sand and water, and salt and pepper are all heterogeneous mixtures. Multiple samples of these mixtures will contain different proportions of each component. In statistics, heterogeneity is a vital concept that appears in various contexts, and its definition varies accordingly.
What is heterogeneity and its importance?
Heterogeneity is not something to be afraid of, it just means that there is variability in your data. So, if one brings together different studies for analysing them or doing a meta-analysis, it is clear that there will be differences found.
Where does CD4 differentiation occur?
These events occur mainly within germinal centers, and the CD4 T cells that enter the germinal center to mediate their helper function for antibody production are often designated T follicular helper (Tfh) cells (31).
What is the example of heterogeneity?
Is a heterogeneous mass cancerous?
Cancer is a dynamic disease. During the course of disease, cancers generally become more heterogeneous. As a result of this heterogeneity, the bulk tumour might include a diverse collection of cells harbouring distinct molecular signatures with differential levels of sensitivity to treatment.
What causes Tumour heterogeneity?
To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors.
How do you interpret heterogeneity?
A rough guide to interpretation is as follows:
- 0% to 40%: might not be important;
- 30% to 60%: may represent moderate heterogeneity*;
- 50% to 90%: may represent substantial heterogeneity*;
- 75% to 100%: considerable heterogeneity*.