What does a photomultiplier tube detect?

What does a photomultiplier tube detect?

photomultiplier tube, electron multiplier tube that utilizes the multiplication of electrons by secondary emission to measure low light intensities. It is useful in television camera tubes, in astronomy to measure intensity of faint stars, and in nuclear studies to detect and measure minute flashes of light.

Which detector is used in photomultiplier?

Photomultipliers are used in research laboratories to measure the intensity and spectrum of light-emitting materials such as compound semiconductors and quantum dots. Photomultipliers are used as the detector in many spectrophotometers.

How do you test a photomultiplier tube?

The PMTs are to be tested by flashing a very dim LED light in the dark box with them. The LED is activated using the lowest possible voltage to emit the smallest number of photons possible. The light flashes very quickly (at roughly 10 Hz) and remains lit for only 11ns at a time.

How much does a photomultiplier tube cost?

PMT System Components

Description Compatibility Price
70683 Photomultiplier Tube Housing, 1.5-Inch Flange or Rod Mount, DC or Pulsed UNIVERSAL $1,898
70693 Photomultiplier Tube Housing, 1.5 Inch Flange or Rod Mount, DC or Pulsed Signals

What is the output of photomultiplier tube?

As Figure 6-1 shows, when light strikes the photocathode of a photomultiplier tube, photoelectrons are emitted. These photoelectrons are multiplied by the cascade process of secondary emission through the dyn- odes (normally 106 to 107 times) and finally reach the anode connected to an output processing circuit.

What is the meaning of photomultiplier?

photomultiplier. / (ˌfəʊtəʊˈmʌltɪˌplaɪə) / noun. a device sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, consisting of a photocathode, from which electrons are released by incident photons, and an electron multiplier, which amplifies and produces a detectable pulse of current.

Why photomultiplier tube is highly sensitive detector?

Photomultipliers (sometimes called photon multipliers) are a type of photoemissive detectors which have a very high sensitivity due to an avalanche multiplication process, and also exhibit a high detection bandwidth.

What is a photomultiplier tube made of?

A photomultiplier tube (PMT) consists of a photocathode followed by an electron multiplier. A single photon ejects an electron from the photocathode. Electric fields in the PMT accelerate the electron into another surface called a dinode.

How big is a photomultiplier tube?

120 to 1200 nm
Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are commercially available from 120 to 1200 nm (albeit not in one device) and have: a fast rise time (1–2 ns side window, 10–15 ns end window);

Why photomultiplier tube is highly sensitive?

Because of secondary-emission multiplication, photomulti- plier tubes provide extremely high sensitivity and exceptionally low noise among the photosensitive devices currently used to detect radiant energy in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions.

Who invented photomultiplier tube?

L.A. Kubetsky
So the first photomultiplier tube was invented on 4 August 1930 in Soviet Union by L.A. Kubetsky. It is “Kubetsky’s tube”. It is interesting to note that the last Beaune conference on New Developments in Photodetection has been held just 1 month before the 75th Anniversary of the PMT invention.

Why photomultiplier tubes are efficient for signal amplification?

The superior sensitivity (high current amplification and high S/N ratio) of photomultiplier tubes is due to the use of a low-noise electron multiplier which amplifies electrons by a cascade sec- ondary electron emission process. The electron multiplier con- sists of from 8, up to 19 stages of electrodes called dynodes.

Which sensor is used in photomultiplier tube?

3.3 Detector Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are generally used as the photodetectors because of their fast response, high gain, and high signal-to-noise ratio. They are sensitive for detection of light in the UV, visible, and near-IR region of ∼200–900 nm.