What are the adverse effects of statins?
Side effects can vary between different statins, but common side effects include:
- feeling sick.
- feeling unusually tired or physically weak.
- digestive system problems, such as constipation, diarrhoea, indigestion or farting.
- muscle pain.
- sleep problems.
- low blood platelet count.
What happens when you inhibit HMG-CoA reductase?
Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic cholesterol synthesis by statins, results in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol content that in turn induces an increase in SREBP-2-mediated hepatic LDL receptor synthesis (Sahebkar and Watts, 2013b) (Chapter 11).
What are the two most common adverse effects of statins?
What are statin side effects?
- Muscle pain and damage. One of the most common complaints of people taking statins is muscle pain.
- Liver damage. Occasionally, statin use could cause an increase in the level of enzymes that signal liver inflammation.
- Increased blood sugar or type 2 diabetes.
- Neurological side effects.
What is the mechanism of action and adverse effects of statins?
Mechanism of Action Statins work by competitively blocking the active site of the first and key rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, HMG-CoA reductase. Inhibition of this site prevents substrate access, thereby blocking the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid.
What are the common adverse effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?
The most common side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors include:
- Muscle aches, tenderness, or weakness (myalgia)
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Bloating or gas.
Which of the following is a severe but rare adverse effect of statin drugs?
The kidneys can become damaged trying to eliminate a large amount of muscle breakdown caused by statin use. This can ultimately lead to kidney failure or even death. Fortunately, rhabdomyolysis is extremely rare. It happens in less than one in 10,000 people taking statins.
Which adverse effect does the nurse expect to find in a patient who is taking Antilipemic drugs?
Adverse/Side Effects Nausea, diarrhea, dyspepsia, increase in blood glucose, rhabdomyolysis, myalgia, or muscle spasms may be produced by taking this medication.
What are the adverse effects of beta blockers?
Side effects of beta blockers
- feeling tired, dizzy or lightheaded (these can be signs of a slow heart rate)
- cold fingers or toes (beta blockers may affect the blood supply to your hands and feet)
- difficulties sleeping or nightmares.
- feeling sick.
What is the most serious side effect of atorvastatin?
Researchers have linked a particularly severe form of myopathy called rhabdomyolysis to the use of statins. With this potentially life-threatening complication, muscle tissue dies and products of the damaged cells can enter the bloodstream. Some of these products are toxic to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure.
What is the very general mechanism of action of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?
Mechanism of Action Statins reduce the plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides, apo-B, and increase the plasma concentrations of HDL-C.
What is the mechanism of action of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for the reduction of cholesterol?
Recently, a new class of lipid-lowering drugs, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, have been introduced. These drugs act by decreasing liver cholesterol synthesis resulting in up-regulation of LDL receptors, increased clearance of LDL from plasma, and diminution of plasma LDL levels.
What are the most common side effects that the patient should be aware of when initiating statin drugs?
Myalgia is the most common side effect of statin use, with documented rates from 1-10%. Rhabdomyolysis is the most serious adverse effect from statin use, though it occurs quite rarely (less than 0.1%). The most common risk factors for statin-related myopathy include hypothyroidism, polypharmacy and alcohol abuse.
What are the mechanisms of action and adverse effects of the bile acid sequestrants?
Since bile acid sequestrants are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, they have limited systemic side effects. Some of the most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal, including constipation, stomach pain, bloating, vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite, indigestion, and upset stomach.
What are the mechanisms of action and adverse effects of the fibric acid derivatives?
Mechanism of action Fibrates reduce hepatic triglyceride levels by inhibiting hepatic extraction of free fatty acids and thus hepatic triglyceride production. These drugs may also lower cholesterol by increasing endothelial lipoprotein lipase activity.
Why are beta blockers contraindicated in heart failure?
Beta-blockers were contraindicated in CHF because of their intrinsic negative inotropic activity, but have now been shown to be beneficial, partly due to their ability to enhance sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation.
Why do beta blockers cause hyperkalemia?
Beta-blockers induce hyperkalemia by various mechanisms such as suppression of aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex and a decrease in cellular uptake of potassium by beta-blocking.
What are the negative side effects of atorvastatin?
Common Lipitor side effects are diarrhea, upset stomach, muscle and joint pain, and changes in some blood tests, according to Pfizer Inc….Common Side Effects of Lipitor
- Cold-like symptoms.
- Joint pain.
- Urinary tract infection.
- Stomach pain.
- Muscle pain and spasms.
- Difficulty falling and staying asleep.
What side effects does atorvastatin have?
Atorvastatin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- joint pain.
- forgetfulness or memory loss.
What are serious side effects of atorvastatin?
Contact your doctor if you experience serious side effects of Lipitor including:
- muscle wasting and muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis),
- confusion or memory problems,
- dark urine,
- increased thirst or hunger,
- loss of appetite, or.
- yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice).
What is bile acid sequestrants mechanism of action?
Bile Acid Sequestrants They work by binding negatively charged bile acids and bile salts in the small intestine to interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and increase the conversion of cholesterol into bile.