# Why AWGN has zero mean?

## Why AWGN has zero mean?

In words, each noise sample in a sequence is uncorrelated with every other noise sample in the same sequence. Therefore, mean value of a white noise is zero.

## What is additive noise in communication?

An interference added to the signal during its transmission over a communication channel.

**What is n0 in white noise?**

In communications, noise spectral density, noise power density, noise power spectral density, or simply noise density (N0) is the power spectral density of noise or the noise power per unit of bandwidth.

**Why AWGN is called white noise?**

White – This refers to the idea that the noise has the same power distribution at every frequency. Therefore, white noise has a constant Power Spectral Density (the measure of a signal’s power compared to frequency) across all frequencies.

### What does additive mean in AWGN?

Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature. The modifiers denote specific characteristics: Additive because it is added to any noise that might be intrinsic to the information system.

### What is additive and multiplicative noise?

If the corresponding random term in the equation does not depend on the state of the system (i.e. on x(t)), we call it additive noise. On the other hand, if the random term depends on the state of the system x(t), then the noise term is called multiplicative.

**What are good SNR values?**

Generally, a signal with an SNR value of 20 dB or more is recommended for data networks where as an SNR value of 25 dB or more is recommended for networks that use voice applications.

**What is PSD of white noise?**

White noise is a CT stochastic process whose PSD is constant. Signal power is the integral of PSD over all frequency space. Therefore the power of white noise is infinite.

#### What is additive noise in image processing?

The presence of noise in an image might be additive or multiplicative. In the Additive Noise Model, an additive noise signal is added to the original signal to produce a corrupted noisy signal that follows the following rule: w(x, y) = s(x,y) + n(x,y)

#### Is Poisson an additive noise?

Poisson noise is neither additive nor multiplicative and so must be dealt with using dedicated procedures.

**Is salt and pepper additive noise?**

I know about three different types of noise: Impulse Noise (salt and pepper noise) Additive Noise (gaussian, poisson, uniform) Multiplicative Noise (mostly observed in radar, ultrasound images)

**What is better high or low SNR?**

The higher the ratio, the better the signal quality. For example, a Wi-Fi signal with S/N of 40 dB will deliver better network services than a signal with S/N of 20 dB.

## What does a negative SNR mean?

Negative SNR means that Signal power is lower than the noise power. You may think communication would be impossible in the negative SNR condition, but in reality there is communication system (technology) which is designed to work mostly in such a condition (e.g, CDMA, WCDMA).

## What is meant by pink noise?

Definition of pink noise : a mixture of sound waves with an intensity that diminishes proportionally with frequency to yield approximately equal energy per octave — compare white noise.

**How is PSD sound measured?**

The noise power spectral density (PSD) is obtained by dividing the noise power by the measurement bandwidth which is the noise equivalent power (NEP) bandwidth of the bandpass filter around the noise frequency .