What is the Weigert Meyer rule?
Meyer-Weigert-Rule predicts the draining pattern of duplex ureters in bipolar renal duplications. The upper pole is normally seen as ectopic and therefore dysplastic due to obstruction, whereas the lower pole is related to vesicoureteral reflux.
How common is duplex collecting system?
Duplex kidneys are a normal variant, meaning that they occur commonly enough in healthy children to be considered normal. They occur in 1 percent of the population, and most cause no medical problems and will require no treatment. Other duplex kidneys can be associated with the following: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
What is a duplicated right renal collecting system?
Duplex kidney, also known as duplicated ureters or duplicated collecting system, is the most common birth defect related to the urinary tract. This occurs due to an incomplete fusion of the upper and lower pole of the kidney which creates two separate drainage systems from the kidney. Most people do not need treatment.
What is upper pole moiety?
upper pole moiety drains via an ectopic ureter usually inserting below and inferomedially to the lower moiety ureter. ▪ lower pole moiety drains via an orthotopic ureter and inserts into the lateral angle of the trigone. Duplex kidneys may be unilateral or bilateral.
What is a bifid ureter?
Image in medicine. A bifid ureter is a congenital renal tract abnormality due to some error or disturbance during development. It is an example of incomplete duplication of urinary collecting system. A bifid ureter is formed when a duplex kidney drain into separate ureters that unite before attending the bladder.
What is Yo Yo reflux?
Yo-yo reflux is a rare clinical form of incomplete duplication of upper collecting system. Disorders in ureteric peristalsis at the site of ureteric fusion may cause yo-yo reflux. Another explanation of yo-yo reflux is the pressure gradient between two ureteric segments.
What causes ectopic ureter?
Ectopic ureter has no known cause. Scientists don’t yet understand why ureters sometimes form differently while a fetus is developing. However, this congenital abnormality often runs in families. If you have an ectopic ureter, each of your children has a 50% chance of developing it.
What problems can a duplex kidney cause?
There is reason for concern when a duplex kidney is associated with urologic conditions requiring treatment. Duplex kidney may result in urine flowing back into the kidney rather into the bladder and also may cause obstruction of urine.
Is a duplex kidney hereditary?
Duplex kidneys are known to run in families so there is a hereditary component, but the exact genetic mechanisms are not always known.
Can duplex kidney go away?
Duplex kidneys that are not causing problems do not require treatment. However, if they are causing symptoms and affecting the patient’s health or quality of life, doctors may recommend one of the following: Nephrectomy – kidney removal.
What is a pancake kidney?
Pancake kidney is described as a renal mass located in the pelvis which is formed by complete medial fusion of renal parenchyma without intervening septum. Each kidney has its own collecting system and anteriorly placed short ureters entering the bladder normally.
Can a duplex kidney cause pain?
The most common symptoms of duplex kidney are flank pain and hematuria caused by obstruction and in- fection of the upper moiety of duplex kidney.
How common is it to have 3 ureters?
Duplicated ureter is the most common renal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1% of the population.
Is duplex kidney hereditary?
Ureteral duplication is more common in females; however, males can have it as well. Duplex kidneys are known to run in families so there is a hereditary component, but the exact genetic mechanisms are not always known.
What is the meaning of ectopic?
Definition of ectopic : occurring in an abnormal position or in an unusual manner or form ectopic lesions.
How much does ectopic ureter surgery cost?
$2000-2500 in females; $2000-4000 in males. Pre-operative evaluation may be necessary (labwork, urine culture, etc.)
Does having a duplex kidney make you pee more?
It may connect to the bladder in an unusual place, which can cause vesicoureteral reflux, or it may even connect directly to the urethra (the tube leading from the bladder out of the body), bypassing the bladder completely, and causing a constant dribble of urine.
Is duplex kidney painful?
The most common symptoms of duplex kidney are flank pain and hematuria caused by obstruction and in- fection of the upper moiety of duplex kidney. 4 Ectopic ureteral orifice is usually associated with urinary inconti- nence in females, resulting from insertion of the ure- teral orifice below the urethral sphincter.
What are the symptoms of duplex kidney?
Diagnosis and symptoms of duplex kidney Symptoms include: Urinary tract infections (UTIs). An obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in poor urine flow. Urinary incontinence is marked by frequent leaking of urine.