What is the branchial apparatus?
The branchial (or pharyngeal) apparatus is the complex region in the developing embryo between the head and chest that develops in the fourth week and provides bilateral ridges and valleys that subsequently develop into numerous anatomic structures of the head, face, palate and anterior neck.
Where did branchial arches come from?
The development of the branchial arches relies on contributions from endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm, and neural crest cells (NCC), which facilitate the development of individual structures. This section will describe the individual contributions from each germ cell layer.
How many pharyngeal clefts are there?
There are initially four pharyngeal clefts. However, only the 1st cleft gives rise to a permanent structure in the adult – the external auditory meatus.
Where is the branchial arches located?
Branchial arches, or gill arches, are a series of bony “loops” present in fish, which support the gills. As gills are the primitive condition of vertebrates, all vertebrate embryos develop pharyngeal arches, though the eventual fate of these arches varies between taxa.
How branchial apparatus is formed?
The branchial apparatus consists of arches, pouches, and grooves (clefts). The branchial or pharyngeal arches develop from mesodermal buds in the lateral walls of the fetal pharynx.
How many branchial arches are there?
The branchial apparatus consists of four branchial arches visible on the surface of the embryo, as well as fifth and sixth arches that cannot be seen on the surface.
What are branchial clefts?
Branchial cleft cysts (also called branchial cleft remnants or branchial cleft anomalies) are a congenital condition (condition present at birth) in which tissue develops incorrectly on one or both sides of the neck. Branchial cleft cysts sometimes have openings on the inside or outside of the skin called sinus tracts.
What is difference between pharyngeal arch and branchial arch?
The pharyngeal arches, also known as visceral arches, are structures seen in the embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish, the arches are known as the branchial arches, or gill arches.
What are the 6 branchial arches?
each pharyngeal arch has a cranial nerve associated with it:
- arch 1: CN V (trigeminal)
- arch 2: CN VII (facial)
- arch 3: CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
- arch 4: CN X (superior laryngeal branch of the vagus)
- arch 6: CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus)
What is a branchial chamber?
A chamber limited primarily by the lateral folds of the carapace, the inner surface of which performs a respiratory function. [ Area between body and carapace enclosing branchiae.
What is branchial basket?
Definition of branchial basket : the cartilaginous structure supporting the gills in protochordates and lower vertebrates (such as ascidians, amphioxi, and cyclostomes)
Is branchial cyst mobile?
Second branchial cleft cysts have been divided into four classes by (Table 1). They can be bilateral and the present as soft, mobile, asymptomatic masses covered with normal skin.
What is branchial fistula?
Branchial cleft fistulae are rare congenital abnormalities that arise from the abnormal persistence of branchial apparatus remnants. A complete fistula is a tract that has an internal opening and an external opening.
What is the function of branchial basket?
Branchial basket is a cartilage like structure that helps to support the gills in both the lower as well as the protochordates vertebrates. These are the baskets which are present in the taste buds and therefore play a very crucial role.
Does Petromyzon have Branchial basket?
In Petromyzon the visceral skeleton contains branchial basket. It lies external to the gill pouches. It shows 9 irregular vertical bars and 4 longitudinal bars on either side. The first vertical bar lies just behind the styloid cartilage.
What is a branchial?
A branchial cleft is also called a cleft sinus. It is a lump or cyst that develops in your neck or near your collarbone. It develops in the womb before birth and is usually diagnosed shortly after birth.
What is Petromyzon and Myxine?
Myxine belongs to the genus of hagfish and belongs to the class Cyclostomata. It has a shape like an eel. This is a slime-producing marine fish. Petromyzon is a type of parasitic lamprey which also belongs to the class Cyclostomata.
What is Branchial basket?